希巴女王

  • John is tall like I am the Queen of Sheba这个希巴女王是什么...

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  • 示巴女王是谁

    希巴女王,又称示巴女王,是《圣经·旧约》中略用文字提及的人物,在传说中,她是一位阿拉伯半岛的女王,在与所罗门王见面后,慕其英明及刚毅,与所罗门王有过一场甜蜜的恋情,并孕有一子。传说中的希巴女王有两种形象,一是惊艳绝伦,一是丑陋无比。希巴女王首见于《圣经•旧约》的“列王记”。

  • 希巴女王的埃塞俄比亚历史

    在旧约圣经《列王纪》第10章中记载,西元前1000年左右,非洲曾经有一个希巴女王由于所罗门王的知识而来访以色列王国。
    又根据埃塞俄比亚版的圣经,希巴女王是埃塞俄比亚的女王,她被所罗门王所诱惑,并生下一名儿子曼涅里克一世-后来埃塞俄比亚的第一任国王;曼涅里克一世长成后回到以色列留学,回国时所罗门王送他一个复制的约柜,但曼涅里克一世设计换成真的约柜(一说偷走),并成功将约柜带回埃塞俄比亚。传说真的约柜仍在埃塞俄比亚(参见:电影法柜奇兵),又传说以色列已在1993年秘密派特种部队将约柜运回以色列,约柜的真假仍有待考证,不过可以确定的是,埃塞俄比亚皇族的确有犹太人(或白人)的血统,他们的肤色的确较一般平民为白。
    所罗门王朝的皇帝们都宣称他们是所罗门王和希巴女王的直属后裔。1270年,阿姆拉克(Yekuno Amlak)建立了新兴的所罗门王朝,定都安姆伯格尔。这个古老的王朝一直不间断的存在到1974年。

  • 希巴女王的女王国度

    古代的香料之路横贯希巴国,更准确的叫法应该是“萨巴国”。萨巴人拥有先进的文化,他们留下了数以千计的石碑铭文,内容包括祭祀、建造记录以及权力和统治的更替。马里卜是阿拉伯半岛上最大的古代遗址,这里饱受地震的摧残和盗墓贼的破坏,被过去的居民所遗弃。考古学家认为这里正是昔日宫殿所在的位置,他们还想找到古代萨巴人的建筑。通过艰苦的努力,他们将细节一点点地拼凑起来。

  • 示巴女王的神秘访问

    一般认为示巴女王对所罗门那次著名的神秘访问发生在公元前950年,有人推测说那是一次带有重大目的的国际访问。《圣经》中的示巴女王更像是作为埃及女王出现的,最有可能是“上埃及”女王,即统治尼罗河上游地区的女王。萨巴王国当时是跨海大国,她的身份一会儿是红海东岸的女王,一会儿是红海西岸的女王,当然也涉嫌就是上埃及女王。一般认为萨巴王国的建立大约在公元前1000年前,不过他们当然不是突然从地下冒出来的一支,这个家族一直以某种方式存在着。
    主耶稣也特别提到示巴女王不远千里而来会见所罗门王的事迹。他说:“当审判的时候,南方的女王要起来定这世代的罪,因为她从地极而来,要听所罗门的智慧话;看哪!在这里有一人比所罗门更大!”
    示巴原意为乐土,出产金矿的地方。身为示巴女王,不用说,定是人间巨富。我们看她送给所罗门的金子就有一百二十他连得,还宝石和极多的香料。圣经上说她送的香料超过以后任何国家奉送的数量。再看她带来的仪仗队,阵容浩大,惊动列国。
    示巴女王花了这么多时间、金钱来亲身求教,而且所罗门这么富足,什么都不缺,照理示巴女王无需锦上添花,送所罗门什么礼物。但她在惊诧感激之余,禁不住要献上甘心乐意的礼物。
    《圣经·列王纪上》 10:1 示巴女王听见所罗门因耶和华之名所得的名声,就来要用难解的话,试问所罗门。跟随她到耶路撒冷的人甚多。又有骆驼驮着香料、宝石和许多金子。她来见了所罗门王,就把心里所有的对所罗门都说出来。所罗门王将她所问的都答上了。没有一句不明白、不能答的。示巴女王见所罗门大有智慧,和他所建造的宫室、席上的珍馐美味,群臣分列而坐,仆人两旁侍立,以及他们的衣服装饰和酒政的衣服装饰,又见他上耶和华殿的台阶〔或作他在耶和华殿里所献的燔祭〕,就诧异得神不守舍。对王说:“我在本国里所听见论到你的事和你的智慧实在是真的。我先不信那些话。及至我来亲眼见了,才知道人所告诉我的还不到一半。你的智慧和你的福分越过我所听见的风声。你的臣子、你的仆人,常侍立在你面前听你智慧的话,是有福的!耶和华你的神是应当称颂的,他喜悦你,使你坐以色列的国位。因为他永远爱以色列,所以立你作王,使你秉公行义。”
    10:10 于是示巴女王将金子和宝石,与极多的香料,送给所罗门王。她送给王的香料,以后奉来的不再有这样多。
    10:11 希兰的船只从俄斐运了金子来,又从俄斐运了许多檀香木(或作乌木,下同)和宝石来。王用檀香木为耶和华殿和王宫作栏杆,又为歌唱的人作琴瑟。以后再没有这样的檀香木进国来,也没有人看见过,直到如今。
    10:13 示巴女王一切所要所求的、所罗门王都送给她。另外照自己的厚意馈送她。于是女王和她臣仆转回本国去了。

  • 示巴女王为什么还被称为比尔吉斯?

    在中世纪流传很广的一个传说里,示巴女王被说成是预晓耶稣将受难于十字架的女先知。据传她在去耶路撒冷拜见所罗门的途中,曾遇到一座小桥。她的幻觉中突然闪现出救世主将被人用这座木桥上的板木钉死的可怕图景。于是她绕道而行,并虔诚地向这座桥祈祷祝福。所罗门得知这个不祥之兆后,立即命人把桥板取下深埋地底,以为就此万事大吉了。却不料后来仍被人挖了出来,成了恶人加害耶稣时所用十字架的板材。

    除了这种神乎其神的传闻外,示巴女王在中世纪和文艺复兴时期的宗教艺术中,时而作为美丽的女王形象,时而又作为丑陋的女巫形象交替出现。在西欧许多国家现今所存的哥特式教堂里,人们仍可以看到表现内容迥然不同的女王形象。在法国的哥特式雕刻中,示巴女王还被不可理解地塑成一位跛足者。这究竟是当时人有史实依据的人物特征描写,还是凭人随意想象的艺术处理,就无从得知了。

    在非基督教信仰的世界里,示巴女王的形象是基本上被丑化了的。犹太教的传奇故事,把示巴女王描绘成有着毛茸茸双脚的恶魔形象,并把她比喻为古代亚述和巴比伦神话中诱人堕落的淫妇。而在伊斯兰教的传说中,示巴女王受到了更大的贬斥,她被称为“比尔基斯”,意为妖怪,说她所行之事对人类来说大都意味着灾难。

    在近代文学作品中,也不乏对示巴女王的想象与描写,又同样是褒贬不一。19世纪,在法国小说家福楼拜的笔下,示巴女王是诱惑隐士的邪欲的化身。而在20世纪著名诗人叶兹的诗中,女王的才智和品德又成了被赞美的主题。

    不过,在许多国家较为流行的民间传说中,示巴女王还是更多地被描绘成天生丽质、聪颖不凡的动人女性,并传说所罗门在耶路撒冷见到她的时候,就为其美丽的外貌和端庄的仪表所倾倒,两位互相爱慕的君主还结成了金玉良缘。埃塞俄比亚的传说中说,虽然所罗门对示巴女王一见钟情,却无奈女王对他无意。后来,所罗门设计引诱,才逼迫女王成婚的。他们在婚后生下一子名叫曼尼里克,以后随示巴女王而去。曼尼里克长大后到耶路撒冷拜谒父亲,并被封为埃塞俄比亚的第一代皇帝。有趣的是,直到这个非洲古国的末代君主、著名的海尔·塞拉西老皇帝在位时,他还以自己是示巴女王和所罗门的嫡传后裔自居呢。

    有关示巴女王的这种种传说尽管充满了传奇色彩,但显而易见的是,它们都缺乏考古或文字所提供的可靠依据。示巴女王是否确有其人,至今还是一个谜。

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